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Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst

时间:2019-04-09 点击: 204 次

A110型氨合成催化剂主要应用于化肥工业中氨的合成,它在较低温度下有较高的催化活性,优良的耐热性、抗毒性能,且具有易还原等特点,因此它是一种较为理想的氨合成催化剂,该产品亦可应用于冶金,电子管工业中,使氨分解为纯净的氮气和氢气。
Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst is mainly used in chemical fertilizer industry in ammonia synthesis. It has high catalytic feature at a low temperature and holds excellent heat resistance,poison resistance and the characteristics of easy to restore. So it is an ideal of ammonia synthesis catalyst. This product can also be applied in metallurgy, vacuum tube industry. Ammonia is decomposed into pure nitrogen and hydrogen.
 
  • 物化性能及主要组成
      Physical and Chemical Properties and Main Component
1、A110型氨合成催化剂为黑色、带磁性有金属光泽的不规则固体颗粒,粒度大小可分为:1.5-3.0mm、2.2-3.3mm、3.3-4.7mm、4.7-6.7mm、6.7-9.4mm、9.4-13.0mm五种,其它粒度可根据用户要求加工。
Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst is black, with magnetic irregular solid particles with metallic luster. Particle size can be divided into: 1.5-3.0mm, 2.2-3.3mm, 3.3-4.7mm, 6.7-9.4mm, 9.4-13.0mm, Other size can according to user requirements for processing.
  1. A110型氨合成催化剂堆密度为2.9-3.2kg/L.
 Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst bulk density is 2.7-3.0kg/L
  1. A110型氨合成催化剂暴露在空气中易受潮,可引起钾盐析出而降低还原后活性,还原好的催化剂如果暴露在空气中会迅速自燃而失去活性。
Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst is easy to be affected with damp when it is exposed to the air. It can cause potassium precipitation decreases after reduction activity. Restored catalyst will quickly lose active spontaneous combustion when it is exposed to the air.
  1. 硫、磷、砷的化合物、铜液、油污及其含氧化合物,均能引起催化剂的暂时性中毒和永久性中毒。
Compounds of sulfur, phosphorus and arsenic, copper liquid, the oil and the oxygen containing compounds all can cause temporary poisoning and permanent poisoning of the catalyst.
  1. A110型氨合成催化剂易还原,300~330℃开始出水,380~420℃大量出水,出水主期420~480℃,最高还原温度500℃。
Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst is easy to restore. Ii starts out of the water when it is 300~330℃, water a lot of water when it is 380~420℃.The main phase of watering is 420~480℃. The highest reduction temperature is 500℃.
  1. 活性检测:实验室条件下,压力15.0MPa,空速3×104h-1,温度425℃时,反应器出口氨体积百分含量不低于13.5%;将温度升至500℃,20小时耐热后,在条件相同的情况下,反应器出口氨体积百分含量仍不低于13.5%。
Detection of activity: In laboratory conditions, with the pressure of 15.0 MPa, Airspeed 3×104h-1, temperature 425 ℃, the percentage of export ammonia reactor volume is not less than 13.5%. When the temperature rise to 500 ℃ and after 20 hours of heat, the percentage of reactor outlet ammonia volume is still no less than 13.5% under the same conditions.
  1. A110型氨合成催化剂主要组份为:四氧化三铁(Fe3O4)、氧化铝(Al2O3)、氧化钾(K2O)、氧化钙(CaO)等。
Main components of Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst include: Fe3O4, Al2O3, K2O, CaO.
 
  • 催化剂的装填
                  The Loading of Catalyst
  1. TA201-2型氨合成催化剂是用铁桶(或塑料桶)包装,由于运输过程中会使少量催化剂的棱角磨损,故在装填前应将催化剂过筛,以除去粉末。在装填时应选在晴好的天气,预防受潮,忌与油污接触。
Type TA201-2 ammonia synthesis catalyst is packed in iron drums (or plastic). Because of shipping process will make a small amount of catalyst wear edges, there should be sieve catalyst before loading, to remove powder. At the time of loading we should choose the sunny weather, preventing moisture and avoiding contact with oil.
  1. 催化剂装填前必须认真检查合成塔内件安装质量要求,密封部分要保证不泄漏,杂质要清理干净,准备好装填工具。
Before catalyst loading, we must carefully check installation quality requirements of synthesis tower internal parts. Sealing parts must to be ensured no leakage, the impurities to be cleaned up, and prepare for packing tools.
  1. 装填时在塔底部和最上部宜铺一层大颗粒的催化剂垫底和压顶。相对小粒度催化剂装填在塔上部绝热层处,相对大粒度的催化剂装填在中部。
When loading, it is better to put a layer of big particle catalysts in the bottom and the upper and the bottom of the case. Relatively small size catalyst is loaded in tower in the upper boundary, relatively large particle catalyst is loaded in the central.
4、催化剂粒度选择可依据塔型及工艺条件而定,在系统压力允许的条件下尽是采用小颗粒,以提高合成塔的生产能力。(轴经向塔径向段尽量采用小颗粒催化剂)。催化剂在装填时,要注意松紧一致,力求均匀,各种粒度分层装填。不允许倾倒在一点上或堆积成斜面再摊平,否则催化剂小颗粒在中间,较大颗粒滚到边上,会引起气体偏流。
The choice of catalyst particle size can be decided according to tower model and process conditions. In the system pressure condition allowed, we try to use small particles in order to improve the synthesis tower production capacity. (shaft to the tower for the radial as far as possible small particles catalyst). In the process of loading Catalyst, we need keep consistent reasonable, and strive to even, all kinds of granularity theory loading. Don't allow poured out on point or cant together to flatten out again, otherwise the catalyst of small particles stay in the middle, larger particles on the rolls, which can cause gas flow deviation.
  1. 装填可用锥形容器或漏斗从塔口均匀放入。轴向段每装50厘米,经向段每装30厘米,应测量装填体积与装填重量的对应值,并用铝棒压实。坚决杜绝在塔一边倾倒造成松实不均。装填时尽量缩短催化剂在空气中的暴露时间,并避免与其它化学品污染。
  Loading can use tapered containers or funnel available from the mouth in uniform. When the axial section is loaded 50 centimeters, longitude section 30 centimeters, we should measure the corresponding value of volume and weight of the loading, and compact it using aluminum bars. Resolutely put an end to topple and fall on one side of the tower and cause nonuniform. When reloading, try to shortened the exposure duration of catalyst in the air and avoid pollution with other chemicals.
 
  • 催化剂的升温还原
            Temperature-rising Reduction of Catalyst
 
主要还原反应如下:Fe3O4+4H2=3Fe+4H2O  △H298=-142.5KJ/moL
A110型催化剂其理论出水量约为催化剂本身重量的29%。
A110型氨合成催化剂在氧化态时催化活性很低,还原成a-Fe后有较高的催化活性,因此科学地掌握控制升温还原条件对催化剂的使用寿命及以后合成氨生产有关键的作用。
The main reduction reaction is as follows:Fe3O4+4H2=3Fe+4H2
                                  △H298=-142.5KJ/moL.
The theoretic hydraulic discharge of Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalyst holds 29% of its weight of catalyst.
Type A110 ammonia synthesis catalysts hold low catalytic activity in the oxidation state, but hold high catalytic activity when backing to a-Fe. So scientifically controlling the condition of temperature-rising reduction plays an important role in the service life of catalyst and the production of synthesis ammonia.
1、合理控制还原过程中的压力、空速:
还原初期,为使塔上部催化剂能彻底还原,应在较低压力、空速下进行,还原中末期可逐渐加大空速和压力,充分利用反应热提高底层温度,缩小轴向温差。
Reasonable control the pressure and space velocity in the process of reduction:
In the early reduction, it should be conducted at lower pressure, space velocity in order to make the upper tower catalyst can restore completely. During the middle and last period, we can gradually increase airspeed and pressure making full use of the heat of reaction to improve the bottom temperature and reduce the axial temperature difference.
  1. 整个还原过程中,循环氢含量应控制在70%以上,出塔水汽浓度应小于2.0g/Nm3,水汽浓度高低可根据温度、压力、空速进行调节。
In the reduction process, circulating hydrogen content should be controlled in more than 70%. The concentration of water vapor out of tower should less than 2.0g/Nm3.The concentration of water vapor can be adjusted according to temperature, pressure, space velocity.
  1. 还原过程中氨冷温度控制在-15℃以下,尤其在一塔生产、一塔还原时更应严格控制,以免微量水汽进入合成塔。
In the process of reduction, ammonia cold temperature should be controlled below 15 ℃, especially in the production and reduction process of One Tower, in order to avoid trace moisture enter into the synthesis tower.
4、还原终点判断:
①水汽浓度连续测定≤0.2g/Nm3
②热点温度500℃,底层温度460℃以上8-10小时
③出水量达到理论出水量的90%以上,三个条件同时成立,方可降温轻负荷生产。
Reduction destination judgment:
①Continuous determination of water vapor concentration acuities were less 0.2 g/Nm3
②Hot spot temperature is 500 ℃,and the bottom temperature above 460 ℃ with 8-10 hours.
③the water yield attaches more than 90% of  of theoretical water yield. When three conditions are set up at the same time, it can be produced in low temperature and light load.
  1. 降温轻负荷生产过程要稳而慢、严防超温现象。
Temperature and light load production process should be steady and slow, bewaring of over temperature phenomenon.
  • 正常生产操作
 The normal production operation
  1. 催化剂还原结束后应轻负荷生产1-2天时间,避免立即加负荷使催化剂的晶体结构发生剧变而影响催化剂的使用寿命和活性。
Catalyst should produce by light load to for 1 to 2 days after the reduction,avoiding that immediately adding load makes the crystal structure of the catalyst have dramatic changes and influence the service life and activity of catalyst.
  1. 生产初期热点温度应控制在460±5℃。
The early production hot spot temperature should be controlled in 460 + 5 ℃.
  1. 初期催化剂活性高,对气体成分变化反应灵敏,应控制H2/N2在2.2-2.8范围内,使操作稳定,避免超温。
In the early period, the catalytic activity is high, and responsive to gas composition change, so H2/N2 should be controlled in 2.2-2.8, making the operation stability and avoiding overheating.
  1. 合理控制操作温度,不宜过早提高热点温度,提温时一次以5℃为宜。
Control the operating temperature reasonably. It is not suitable to improve hot temperature too early and it is suitable to increase temperature with 5 ℃ one time.
  1. 操作过程中,必须严格控制合成入塔气体中CO+CO2含量在25PPM以下。
In the process of operation,we must strictly control the content of CO+CO2 in the synthesis gas into the tower below 25PPM.